Der E-Ring (ursprünglich Exterior-Ring) wurde 1967 auf Aufnahmen aus dem Vorjahr durch Walter Feibelman entdeckt. William Lassell termed it the "Crepe Ring" because it seemed to be composed of darker material than the brighter A and B Rings.[69]. Some scientists speculated that the spokes would not be visible again until 2007, based on models attempting to describe their formation. Der Schattenwurf auf die Saturnoberfläche ist umso ausgeprägter, je mehr das dünne Ringsystem im Laufe eines Saturnjahres mit seiner schmalen „Kante“ gegenüber der Sonne geneigt ist. Close-up of the south polar geysers of Enceladus, the source of the E Ring. [79] The moonlet was given the provisional designation S/2009 S 1. Es ist das auffälligste und charakteristische Merkmal des Planeten und durch ein Fernrohr ab etwa 40-facher Vergrößerung sichtbar. [86][87], The Encke Gap is a 325-km-wide gap within the A ring, centered at a distance of 133,590 km from Saturn's center. F- Ring des Saturn Der F- Ring, einer der äußeren Ringe des Saturn in einer Aufnahme von Voyager 1. In 2007, the discovery of eight more moonlets revealed that they are largely confined to a 3,000 km belt, about 130,000 km from Saturn's center,[96] and by 2008 over 150 propeller moonlets had been detected. This structure is thought to arise, in several different ways, from the gravitational pull of Saturn's many moons. There was some ambiguity between the terms gap and division until the IAU clarified the definitions in 2008; before that, the separation was sometimes called the "Encke Division". [47] The second theory is that the rings were never part of a moon, but are instead left over from the original nebular material from which Saturn formed. Left of center, two dark gaps (the larger being the Huygens Gap) and the bright (from this viewing geometry) ringlets to their left comprise the Cassini Division. Saturns Ringe sind entsprechend der Reihenfolge ihrer Entdeckung benannt und werden von innen nach außen als D-, C-, B-, A-, F-, G- und E-Ring bezeichnet. Alle 14,8 Jahre, also ungefähr jedes halbe Saturnjahr, passiert die Erde die Ringebene, so dass das Ringsystem nahezu unsichtbar wird. The other more tightly wound bands are spiral density waves. Keeler had in turn discovered and named the Encke Gap in honor of Johann Encke. Sein Teleskop war nicht so leistungsfähig wie heutige Instrumente, weswegen er die unscharfen Beulen an den Rändern von Saturn fälschlicherweise als Henkel beschrieb. [51], The brightness and purity of the water ice in Saturn's rings has also been cited as evidence that the rings are much younger than Saturn,[43] as the infall of meteoric dust would have led to darkening of the rings. Doch auch andere Planeten verfügen über Ringe: So hat auch der Gasriese Jupiter Ringe, die erstmals von der Voyager 1 nachgewiesen werden konnten. Ein Planet gehört übrigens nicht mehr zu unserem System: Pluto gilt nicht mehr als Planet. Suggestions that the spokes may be a seasonal effect, varying with Saturn's 29.7-year orbit, were supported by their gradual reappearance in the later years of the Cassini mission.[78]. Notes: A 2016 study of spiral density waves using stellar occultations indicated that the B Ring's surface density is in the range of 40 to 140 g/cm2, lower than previously believed, and that the ring's optical depth has little correlation with its mass density (a finding previously reported for the A and C rings). The Maxwell Gap is below center. [53], The Cassini UVIS team, led by Larry Esposito, used stellar occultation to discover 13 objects, ranging from 27 m to 10 km across, within the F ring. Many of the other gaps between ringlets within the Cassini Division, however, are unexplained. Pan's motion through the A ring's Encke Gap induces edge waves and (non-self-propagating) spiraling wakes[143] ahead of and inward of it. Although reflection from the rings increases Saturn's brightness, they are not visible from Earth with unaided vision. The 30-km wavelength spiral corrugations first seen in the D Ring were observed during Saturn's equinox of 2009 to extend throughout the C Ring (see above). [4], Early astronomers used anagrams as a form of commitment scheme to lay claim to new discoveries before their results were ready for publication. Within the gap lies the bright but narrow Colombo Ringlet, centered at 77,883 km from Saturn's center, which is slightly elliptical rather than circular. Planeten er unik med sitt enorme og spektakulære ringsystem. Anscheinend sind sie aber ähnlich alt wie der Saturn selbst. Es wird angenommen, dass der Ring aus Material des Mondes Phoebe stammt. Man weiß nicht, wie die Ringe genau entstanden sind. Saturn - Herr der Ringe Saturn können Sie leicht am Himmel finden, obwohl er über 1,2 Milliarden Kilometer von uns entfernt ist: Der zweitgrößte Planet gehört zu den hellsten Gestirnen. The G Ring (see last image in gallery) is a very thin, faint ring about halfway between the F Ring and the beginning of the E Ring, with its inner edge about 15,000 km inside the orbit of Mimas. Auf astronomischen Übersichtsaufnahmen sind gewöhnlich nur der A- und der B-Ring und die sie trennende Cassini-Teilung, allenfalls noch die Encke-Teilung im A-Ring zu sehen. Mit 95 Erdmassen hat er jedoch nur 30 % der Masse Jupiters. Saturn wird noch immer gerne als "der Ringplanet" bezeichnet.Zweifellos ist das Ringsystem des Planeten das eindrucksvollste und am besten sichtbare im Sonnensystem. Saturn and its A, B and C rings in visible and (inset) infrared light. One of the small moons was tentatively identified as S/2004 S 6. The narrow F Ring, just off the outer edge of the A Ring, is more difficult to categorize; parts of it are very dense, but it also contains a great deal of dust-size particles. Darüber hinaus sind kreisende Scheiben in der Astronomie ein häufiges Phänomen, das in sehr verschiedenen Größenordnungen auftritt. Ingen ved, hvordan ringene er opstået, men meget tyder på, at de er kommet kort efter, Saturn blev dannet. Die Lücken zwischen den Ringen beruhen auf der gravitativen Wechselwirkung mit den zahlreichen Monden des Saturn sowie der Ringe untereinander. [70], The Maxwell Gap lies within the outer part of the C Ring. Saturn er den sjette planeten regnet fra Sola, og den nest største av planetene i solsystemet. Die schönsten Ringe des Sonnensystems Bei der Beobachtung von Saturn steht weniger der Planet selbst, als sein prächtiges Ringsystem im Vordergrund. Saturn har 82 kjente måner. Die inneren Ringe brauchen dafür mindestens sechs Stunden, die äußeren bis zu vierzehn Stunden. Både Jupiter, Uranus og Neptun har ringe, men de er meget mindre og slet ikke så lette at observere som Saturns ringe. [71] The division may appear bright in views of the unlit side of the rings, since the relatively low density of material allows more light to be transmitted through the thickness of the rings (see second image in gallery). [4][9] Robert Hooke was another early observer of the rings of Saturn, and noted the casting of shadows on the rings. In 1610, the year after Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the sky, he became the first person to observe Saturn's rings, though he could not see them well enough to discern their true nature. Since Prometheus orbits Saturn more rapidly than the material in the F ring, each new channel is carved about 3.2 degrees in front of the previous one. Je nach Position des Saturn auf seiner Umlaufbahn ändert sich der Winkel zwischen den Saturnringen und der Sonne und somit auch der Einfallswinkel des ultravioletten Lichts. Nach einer Abwandlung dieser Theorie zerbrach der Mond durch eine Kollision mit einem Kometen oder Asteroiden. Upon confirming his observations, three years later he revealed it to mean "Annuto cingitur, tenui, plano, nusquam coherente, ad eclipticam inclinato"; that is, "It [Saturn] is surrounded by a thin, flat, ring, nowhere touching, inclined to the ecliptic". Diese kreisen um den Saturn, genau wie ein Mond. The B Ring contains a great deal of variation in its density and brightness, nearly all of it unexplained. Although theoretical models indicated that the rings were likely to have formed early in the Solar System's history,[2] new data from Cassini suggest they formed relatively late.[3]. Heute ist bekannt, dass das Hauptringsystem mehr als 100.000 einzelne Ringe mit unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzungen und Farbtönen beinhaltet, welche durch scharf umrissene Lücken voneinander abgegrenzt sind. Ringene er opdelt af nogle smalle mørke mellemrum, som man tidligere troede blev dannet af tyngdekræfterne fra månerne uden for ringene. Die Ringe liegen alle in einer Ebene, so wie die Rillen einer Schallplatte. A video showing the arc's orbital motion may be viewed on YouTube[146] or the Cassini Imaging Team website.[147]. This ringlet is also called the Titan Ringlet as it is governed by an orbital resonance with the moon Titan. Neue Messungen und Aufnahmen der Raumsonde Cassini haben ergeben, dass die Ringkanten und damit die Abtrennung der Ringe noch schärfer sind als bisher angenommen. Saturn is a gas giant made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. The ring particles are made almost entirely of water ice, with a trace component of rocky material. Beyond that are two far fainter rings named G and E. The rings show a tremendous amount of structure on all scales, some related to perturbations by Saturn's moons, but much unexplained. The radial width of the arc is about 250 km, compared to a width of 9,000 km for the G Ring as a whole. In 2009, during equinox, a moonlet embedded in the B ring was discovered from the shadow it cast. With an estimated local thickness of as little as 10 m[27] and as much as 1 km,[28] they are composed of 99.9% pure water ice with a smattering of impurities that may include tholins or silicates. Die vier weiteren, sehr feinen und lichtschwachen Gebilde wurden erst durch drei Raumsonden zwischen 1979 und 1981 nachgewiesen. Forscher sind allerdings der Meinung, dass die Ringe nicht zur selben Zeit wie der Planet selbst entstanden sind. Als Ursache für die Streifenbildung wurde zunächst eine kurzlebige Wechselwirkung mit dem Magnetfeld des Saturn vermutet. Other gaps arise from resonances between the orbital period of particles in the gap and that of a more massive moon further out; Mimas maintains the Cassini Division in this manner. Der innerste beginnt bereits etwa 7000 km über der Oberfläche des Saturn und hat einen Durchmesser von 134.000 km, der äußerste hat einen Durchmesser von 960.000 km. A few particles are as large as mountains. The wavelength decreases as the wave propagates away from the resonance, so the apparent foreshortening in the image is illusory. [3] It is a small fraction of the total mass of Saturn (about 0.25 ppb). [118] The E Ring is distributed between the orbits of Mimas and Titan. Die erste Beobachtung der Saturnringe gelang Galileo Galilei im Jahre 1610. Saturn – Planet der Ringe Die Ringe – dünner als ein Blatt Papier Mit den drei Raumsonden Pioneer 11 sowie Voyager 1 und 2 erreichten Ende der 1970er, Anfang der 1980er Jahre erstmals künstliche Späher Saturn, die unser Bild des Ringplaneten … Im Jahre 1856 zeigte James Clerk Maxwell, dass stabile Ringe nur existieren können, wenn sie aus einer Vielzahl nicht zusammenhängender kleiner fester Körper bestehen.[11]. Die Ringe des Saturn, die vor 400 Jahren erstmals von Galileo durch ein Teleskop entdeckt wurden, sind in unserer Nachbarschaft einzigartig. [104], In 2008, further dynamism was detected, suggesting that small unseen moons orbiting within the F Ring are continually passing through its narrow core because of perturbations from Prometheus. US-amerikanische Astronomen fanden 2006 jedoch eine andere Erklärung für das Rätsel um die Speichenstrukturen: Demnach bestehen die Speichen aus winzigen (wenige µm) geladenen Staubpartikeln, deren Flugbahn vom UV-Licht der Sonne so beeinflusst wird, dass die Partikel durch entstehende elektrostatische Kräfte in einen Schwebezustand (Levitation) gebracht und angehoben werden[13]. There is still no consensus as to their mechanism of formation. Its inner boundary is the Cassini Division and its sharp outer boundary is close to the orbit of the small moon Atlas. The most recent ring plane crossings were on 22 May 1995, 10 August 1995, 11 February 1996 and 4 September 2009; upcoming events will occur on 23 March 2025, 15 October 2038, 1 April 2039 and 9 July 2039. Are they solid like the CD you used to make your model? [122] Unlike the main rings, the E Ring is more than 2,000 km thick and increases with its distance from Enceladus. Galileo used smaismrmilmepoetaleumibunenugttauiras for Altissimum planetam tergeminum observavi ("I have observed the most distant planet to have a triple form") for discovering the rings of Saturn. Sie bestehen aus unzähligen kleinen Eis- und Gesteinspartikeln, deren Größe vom Staubkorn bis zu einem mehrere Meter durchmessenden Brocken reicht. They consist of countless small particles, ranging in size from micrometers to meters,[1] that orbit about Saturn. Der Saturn hat eine durchschnittliche Entfernung zur Sonne … This results in their surfaces being coated with bright material that smooths out features. Pioneer 11's closest approach to Saturn occurred in September 1979 at a distance of 20,900 km. [124] The trojan moons Telesto, Calypso, Helene and Polydeuces are particularly affected as their orbits move up and down the ring plane. Erst durch Raumsonden erkannte man, dass die Ringe wiederum Lücken aufweisen und sich in noch kleinere eng begrenzte Unterringe aufteilen. Saturn's volume is greater than 760 Earths, and it is the second most massive planet in … Neben Planetenringen zählen dazu Akkretionsscheiben bei Röntgendoppelsternen und solche, die sich in der Entstehungsphase von Sternen ausbilden, wie beispielsweise der Asteroidengürtel, aber auch die Spiralgalaxien. On the other hand, if the material came primarily from micrometeoroid influx, the age would be closer to a billion years. Die räumliche Variation der Anziehungskräfte durch den Saturn übersteigt in diesem Fall die mondinternen Gravitationskräfte, so dass der Mond nur noch durch seine materielle Struktur zusammengehalten wird. Dieser dreht sich mit dem neu entdeckten Ringsystem, im Vergleich zu den bisher bekannten Ringen, in die entgegengesetzte Richtung um den Saturn. Ringene kredser om Saturn med forskellig fart. A faint ring arc, first detected in September 2006, covering a longitudinal extent of about 10 degrees is associated with the moon Methone. [12] Spectroscopic studies of the rings carried out in 1895 by James Keeler of Allegheny Observatory and Aristarkh Belopolsky of Pulkovo Observatory showed Maxwell's analysis was correct. [99] The Roche Division should not be confused with the Roche limit which is the distance at which a large object is so close to a planet (such as Saturn) that the planet's tidal forces will pull it apart. [109], More recent closeup images from the Cassini probe show that the F Ring consists of one core ring and a spiral strand around it. Steckbrief zum Saturn: Warum hat er Ringe? Spiral bending waves, also present in the A Ring and also described by the same theory, are vertical corrugations in the ring rather than compression waves. This disk can be loosely described as another ring. Dieser Artikel behandelt die den Planeten umkreisenden Eis- und Gesteinsbrocken; für das Buch von W. G. Sebald siehe, Radien und Umlaufzeiten der Saturnringe und beteiligter Monde, Weitere Ring- und Scheibenphänomene in der Astronomie, International Astronomical Union, Symposium No. [71], Johann Encke himself did not observe this gap; it was named in honour of his ring observations. [3][43] This recent origin scenario is based on a new, low mass estimate, modeling of the rings' dynamical evolution, and measurements of the flux of interplanetary dust, which feed into an estimate of the rate of ring darkening over time. Nach der von Édouard Albert Roche bereits im 19. Der Ursprung der Ringe des Saturn ist unbekannt. So wird die Cassinische Teilung durch den Mond Mimas verursacht. Saturn has an axial tilt of 27 degrees, so this ring is tilted at an angle of 27 degrees to the more visible rings orbiting above Saturn's equator. They are arranged in a line parallel to the zodiac, and the middle one (Saturn itself) is about three times the size of the lateral ones. [104], A faint dust ring is present around the region occupied by the orbits of Janus and Epimetheus, as revealed by images taken in forward-scattered light by the Cassini spacecraft in 2006. Along with the C Ring, which was discovered in 1850 and is similar in character to the Cassini Division, these regions constitute the main rings. Within the Roche limit, bodies of rocky material are dense enough to accrete additional material, whereas less-dense bodies of ice are not. [9], Mit dem Weltraumteleskop WISE wurde 2015 festgestellt, dass sich der Ring in einer Entfernung von 6 bis 16 Millionen Kilometer von der Saturnoberfläche erstreckt. High resolution (about 3 km per pixel) color view of the inner-central B Ring (98,600 to 105,500 km from Saturn's center). [63][64] The waves are interpreted as a spiral pattern of vertical corrugations of 2 to 20 m amplitude;[65] the fact that the period of the waves is decreasing over time (from 60 km in 1995 to 30 km by 2006) allows a deduction that the pattern may have originated in late 1983 with the impact of a cloud of debris (with a mass of ≈1012 kg) from a disrupted comet that tilted the rings out of the equatorial plane. Stabilizing resonances, on the other hand, are responsible for the longevity of several rings, such as the Titan Ringlet and the G Ring. [76], The spokes were not observed again until some twenty-five years later, this time by the Cassini space probe. One mechanism involves gravity pulling electrically charged water ice grains down from the rings along planetary magnetic field lines, a process termed 'ring rain'. Der G-Ring wurde im November 1980 durch Voyager 1 entdeckt. [4] The concept that Saturn's rings are made up of a series of tiny ringlets can be traced to Pierre-Simon Laplace,[4] although true gaps are few – it is more correct to think of the rings as an annular disk with concentric local maxima and minima in density and brightness. It also contains a dense non-circular ringlet, the Maxwell Ringlet. Auch andere Astronomen seiner Zeit meldeten ein … Saturn er omgivet af et smukt ringsystem, også kendt som Saturns ringe. Ringpartiklernes hastighed varierer med afstanden til planeten - jo tættere på, des hurtigere bevæger de sig. This process may explain the variation in silicate content of Saturn's moons out to Rhea, as well as the trend towards less silicate content closer to Saturn. A faint ring arc, first detected in June 2007, covering a longitudinal extent of about 20 degrees is associated with the moon Anthe. Wissenschaft Saturn - Planet der Ringe. [131] The material would thus strike the leading hemisphere of Iapetus. [125], In October 2009, the discovery of a tenuous disk of material just interior to the orbit of Phoebe was reported. The rings would initially have been much more massive (≈1,000 times) and broader than at present; material in the outer portions of the rings would have coalesced into the moons of Saturn out to Tethys, also explaining the lack of rocky material in the composition of most of these moons. [110] They also show that when Prometheus encounters the ring at its apoapsis, its gravitational attraction creates kinks and knots in the F Ring as the moon 'steals' material from it, leaving a dark channel in the inner part of the ring (see video link and additional F Ring images in gallery). [56] Assuming this influx rate is stable, adding it to the continuous 'ring rain' process implies the rings may be gone in under 100 million years.[55][57]. [129] The ring was subsequently studied using the WISE, Herschel and Cassini spacecraft;[130] WISE observations show that it extends from at least between 50 and 100 to 270 Saturn radii (the inner edge is lost in the planet's glare). It was discovered in 1675 by Giovanni Cassini at the Paris Observatory using a refracting telescope that had a 2.5-inch objective lens with a 20-foot-long focal length and a 90x magnification. [92] The moon's passage induces waves in the edges of the gap (this is also influenced by its slight orbital eccentricity). Obwohl Saturn mehr als eine Milliarde Kilometer Abstand von der Erde hat, können wir ihn noch gut am Nachthimmel sehen. [15] Voyager 2's closest approach occurred in August 1981 at a distance of 41,000 km. "A Ring" redirects here. [17] Cassini's images of the rings are the most detailed to-date, and are responsible for the discovery of yet more ringlets. The B Ring's outer edge, viewed near equinox, where shadows are cast by vertical structures up to 2.5 km high, probably created by unseen embedded moonlets. For the letter, see. These diffuse rings are characterised as "dusty" because of the small size of their particles (often about a μm); their chemical composition is, like the main rings, almost entirely water ice. Nevertheless, the Cassini imaging team kept looking for spokes in images of the rings, and they were next seen in images taken on 5 September 2005. His hypothesis was written up in De corpore saturni, in which he came close to suggesting the planet had a ring. [85], In April 2014, NASA scientists reported observing the possible formative stage of a new moon near the outer edge of the A Ring. In 1612 the Earth passed through the plane of the rings and they became invisible. [106] It is very thin, just a few hundred km in radial extent. The disk was aligned edge-on to Earth at the time of discovery. [72], Similarly to the B Ring, the A Ring's outer edge is maintained by orbital resonances, albeit in this case a more complicated set. The confinement of the dust within the arc is attributable to a 14:15 resonance with Mimas (similar to the mechanism of confinement of the arc within the G ring). Infall of this material causes a slight darkening and reddening of the leading hemisphere of Iapetus (similar to what is seen on the Uranian moons Oberon and Titania) but does not directly create the dramatic two-tone coloration of that moon. [62], Present in the D Ring is a finescale structure with waves 30 km apart. Earlier Voyager observations of density waves in the A and B rings and an optical depth profile had yielded a mass of about 0.75 Mimas masses,[32] with later observations and computer modeling suggesting that was an underestimate. [82] The resonance causes Mimas' pulls on these ring particles to accumulate, destabilizing their orbits and leading to a sharp cutoff in ring density. If much of this material was contributed by a recently disrupted centaur or moon, the age of this ring could be on the order of 100 million years or less. Jene Ringe, die andere große Planeten unseres Systems umgeben – Jupiter, Uranus und Neptun –, sind dunkler und zerklüfteter als die hellen, üppigen Schlaufen um den Saturn herum. In many respects this ringlet is similar to the ε ring of Uranus. Ved planetens … Esposito believes this to be the basic structure of the Saturnian rings, particles clumping together, then being blasted apart. It was discovered in 1850 by William and George Bond, though William R. Dawes and Johann Galle also saw it independently. [21][22][23], Saturn's equinoxes, when the Sun passes through the ring plane, are not evenly spaced; on each orbit the sun is south of the ring plane for 13.7 Earth years, then north of the plane for 15.7 years. Aus der Ferne betrachtet bilden sie zusammen ein Ringsystem, das den Planeten Saturn umgibt. The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System. Det er den næststørste planet i solsystemet efter Jupiter. The precise mechanism generating the spokes is still unknown, although it has been suggested that the electrical disturbances might be caused by either lightning bolts in Saturn's atmosphere or micrometeoroid impacts on the rings. Doch mit Berechnungen undspeziellen Messungen fand man heraus: Die Ringe bestehen aus Milliarden kleiner Staubkörner, Eiskristalle und Gesteinsbrocken. Galileo Galilei was the first to observe the rings of Saturn in 1610 using his telescope, but was unable to identify them as such. Ein weiteres Phänomen sind radiale, speichenartige Strukturen, die sich von innen nach außen über die Ringe des Saturn erstrecken und hierbei enorme Ausmaße annehmen: bei einer Breite von rund 100 km können sie bis zu 20.000 km lang werden. [citation needed], The Huygens Gap is located at the inner edge of the Cassini Division. Einige kleinere Monde, so genannte Hirten- oder auch Schäfermonde, kreisen direkt in den Lücken und an den Rändern des Ringsystems und stabilisieren dessen Struktur. Saturn—the ringed planet. Das Ringsystem wird von größeren und kleineren Lücken in konzentrische Einzelringe unterteilt. [136][137][138], Saturn's second largest moon Rhea has been hypothesized to have a tenuous ring system of its own consisting of three narrow bands embedded in a disk of solid particles. [n 2]. "[4] He mused, "Has Saturn swallowed his children?" While the traditional view has been that it is held together by two shepherd moons, Prometheus and Pandora, which orbit inside and outside it,[89] recent studies indicate that only Prometheus contributes to the confinement.